氣旋盧班

特強氣旋風暴盧班
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Luban
特強氣旋風暴(印度
一級熱帶氣旋(美國
Luban 2018-10-10 0926Z.jpg
10月10日,正處最高強度的氣旋盧班
形成 2018年10月6日
消散 2018年10月15日
最高風速 3分鐘持續 140公里/小時(85英里/小時)
1分鐘持續 140公里/小時(85英里/小時)
最低氣壓 978百帕毫巴);28.88英寸汞柱
死亡 共14人
損失 $10億(2018年美元
影響地區 阿曼索馬里也門
2018年北印度洋氣旋季的一部分

特強氣旋風暴盧班(英語:Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Luban)是2018年北印度洋氣旋季中自5月的氣旋薩迦氣旋梅庫努後第三個影響阿拉伯半島熱帶氣旋。魯班在10月6日於阿拉伯海中部發展而成,並在大部分時間內維持大致西北偏西的路徑。10月10日,印度氣象局將魯班升級為特強氣旋風暴——相當於一級颶風——估計最大持續風速為每小時140公里。風暴在10月14日以氣旋風暴標準在也門東部登陸。風暴在阿拉伯半島的乾燥及多山的地形上迅速減弱,其後在10月15日消散。

在登陸後,氣旋盧班在索馬里阿曼和也門產生暴雨。當暴雨切斷村莊對外通道和令道路受損時,氣旋在也門造成14人死亡。該國的損失估計為10億美元[注 1]。在阿曼,沙漠降雨導致小蝗蟲爆發。盧班與孟加拉灣的特強氣旋風暴提特里共存,這是自1977年以來首次在北印度洋同時出個兩股相當強度的風暴。

氣象歷史

根據薩菲爾-辛普森颶風等級的強度繪製的風暴路徑圖

On October 4, an upper-level low persisted over the southeast Arabian Sea.[1] That day, the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) first mentioned an area of scattered convection southwest of India as an area for potential tropical cyclogenesis, due to projections from tropical cyclone forecast models. The convective system was located in the warm waters of the Arabian Sea in an area of low wind shear.[2] The circulation slowly became more defined,[3] developing a low pressure area on October 5. On October 6, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) designated the system as Depression ARB 04. A day later, the agency upgraded the system to a deep depression, and on October 8, the IMD upgraded it further to Cyclonic Storm Luban.[1] On the same day, the JTWC initiated advisories on Luban, giving it the designation Tropical Cyclone 05A.[4]

By that time the JTWC initiated advisories, Luban had rotating rainbands around a persistent central area of thunderstorms, with good outflow to the north. The circulation became better defined over time, steered generally west-northwestward by a subtropical ridge to its north.[4] On October 9, the IMD upgraded Luban to a severe cyclonic storm,[5] as the thunderstorms continued to bloom over the circulation.[6] A day later, the IMD upgraded Luban further to a very severe cyclonic storm, with maximum sustained winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph), equivalent to a hurricane.[7] Luban coexisted with Vere Severe Cyclonic Storm Titli, marking the first time since 1977 that two storms of such intensity were active at the same time in the North Indian Ocean.[1] The JTWC also upgraded Luban to the same intensity on October 10, noting the development of an eye feature.[8] Both the IMD and the JTWC estimated that Luban attained a peak winds of 140 km/h (85 mph). They also forecasted that the storm would continue its general trajectory and strike the Arabian Peninsula.[9][10]

Caught between two ridges, Luban moved slowly toward the Arabian Peninsula. The slow movement caused upwelling, which cooled the waters, thus weakening the cyclone despite otherwise favorable conditions. The central core of convection diminished and became restricted to the eastern side of the circulation.[11][12] On October 13, thunderstorm activity increased over the center, signaling some re-intensification.[13] Luban again weakened as it approached land, affected by the cooler water and air temperatures.[14] On October 14, around 06:00 UTC, Luban made landfall in eastern Yemen, about 30 km (20 mi) south of Al Ghaydah, with winds of 75 km/h (45 mph).[15] The storm rapidly weakened over the dry and mountainous terrain,[16] degenerating into a well-marked low on October 15.[1]

防災措施、影響及善後

The IMD advised fishermen not to go into deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden.[17] Omani officials closed schools and recommended that residents in the storm's path to avoid low-lying areas.[18] As Luban made landfall, the storm dropped heavy rainfall in southern Oman that caused flash flooding. Dalkout reported a 24 hour precipitation total of 145 mm(5.71英寸) and Salalah of 138 mm(5.43英寸).[19] The rains created temporary lakes between desert dunes, which produced a small locust outbreak.[20] To the south of the center, the outer rainbands of Luban dropped rains in Puntland, Somalia.[21]

Cyclone Luban struck Yemen in the midst of a civil war and a cholera outbreak.[22] The United Nations Population Fund moved 1,250 rapid response kits to coastal areas of Yemen in anticipation of Luban's landfall. Medical teams also moved to the region on standby in preparation for storm victims.[23] Luban dropped heavy rainfall upon moving ashore, reaching 290 mm(11英寸) in Al Ghaydah; there, wind gusts reached 102 km/h (63 mph).[1] Luban caused about US$1 billion in damage in Yemen,[24] with the worst effects in Al Mahrah Governorate,[25] where about 90% of the infrastructure was damaged. The storm killed 14 people in the country, and 124 people were injured, with 10 people missing. About 8,000 people were left homeless because of Luban.[26] Storm damage forced 2,203 families to leave their houses, using 38 schools for shelter.[27] Flooding washed away thousands of livestock,[28] and damaged Yemen's coastal roads and bridges, which disrupted relief efforts.[27][29] Dirt roads were washed away, isolating seven villages and about 3,000 people.[30] The port of Nishtun was closed during the storm, but was reopened in the subsequent weeks.[29][27] In Al-Masilah, flooding damaged or destroyed 62 houses. The storm damaged the hospital in Qishn District, forcing all workers to evacuate, and shutting down the facility for at least a week.[27] The storm damaged about 90% of the power grid in Al Ghaydah.[29] Many areas lost access to clean water after wells were destroyed. The Yemeni Red Crescent operated search and rescue missions, with help from a helicopter sent by Saudi Arabia.[27]

In the storm's aftermath, various governments and non-governmental organizations provided emergency supplies to residents affected by Luban. The King Salman Relief Centre sent two trucks from Aden to the worst affected areas to distribute tents, blankets, and mattresses. The Oman Charitable Organization sent seven trucks with food and other supplies to eastern Yemen. The World Health Organization sent three tons of medical supplies, including kits for cholera, malaria, and general trauma.[29][27] About 10 days after the storm struck, the Emirates Red Crescent reconnected seven villages after clearing debris and restoring the dirt roads.[30] Al Mahrah Governorate allocated ‎2 billion (US$2.55 million) for repairing public facilities.[24]

注釋

  1. ^ 如無特別說明,所有損失金額均為2018年美元價值。

參見

參考資料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ‘LUBAN’ over the Arabian Sea (06 – 15 October 2018): A Report (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2018 [2019-01-26]. 
  2. ^ Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Indian Ocean. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-04. (原始内容存档于2018-10-06). 
  3. ^ Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Indian Ocean. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-05. (原始内容存档于2018-10-06). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Tropical Cyclone 05A (Five) Warning NR 001. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-08 [2018-10-21]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-08). 
  5. ^ Naresh Kumar. Bulletin No: 11 (BOB 08/2018) and Bulletin No. : 21 (ARB 04/2018). India Meteorological Department. 2018-10-10 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-10-10). 
  6. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 008. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [2018-10-21]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-10). 
  7. ^ S. D. Kotal. Bulletin No: 11 (BOB 08/2018) and Bulletin No. : 21 (ARB 04/2018). India Meteorological Department. 2018-10-10 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-10-10). 
  8. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 010. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [2018-10-21]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-10). 
  9. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 010. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [2018-10-21]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-10). 
  10. ^ D. Joardar. Bulletin NO.: 22 (BOB 08/2018) and Bulletin NO. : 32 (ARB 04/2018). India Meteorological Department. 2018-10-10 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-10-10). 
  11. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 015. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-12 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-12). 
  12. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 017. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [2018-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-12). 
  13. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 022. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-13 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-13). 
  14. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 025. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-13 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-13). 
  15. ^ Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin No. 51. India Meteorological Department. 2018-10-14 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2018-10-14). 
  16. ^ Tropical Cyclone 05A (Luban) Warning NR 026. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2018-10-14 [2018-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-14). 
  17. ^ Sunitha Devi. Bulletin NO.: 19 (BOB 08/2018) and Bulletin NO. : 29 (ARB 04/2018)-Modified (PDF). India Meteorological Department. 2018-10-10 [2018-10-22]. 
  18. ^ Cyclone Luban: Storm closing in on Salalah, heavy rains in Dhofar. Lhaleej Times. 2018-10-14 [2018-10-22]. 
  19. ^ Dr. Jeff Masters. 94L Headed Towards Belize; Tara Drenching Mexico; Luban Floods Yemen. Weatherunderground.com. 2018-10-15 [2018-10-22]. 
  20. ^ Desert Locust Bulletin 483 (December 2018) (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2019-01-09. ReliefWeb [2019-01-26]. 
  21. ^ Somalia Rainfall Forecast - Issued: 17 October 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2018-10-17. ReliefWeb [2018-12-07]. 
  22. ^ Global Emergency Overview Weekly Picks, 16 October 2018. Assessment Capacities Project. 2018-10-16. ReliefWeb [2018-10-22]. 
  23. ^ UNFPA rushes emergency supplies for cyclone-affected South-east Yemen. United Nations Population Fund. 2018-10-15. ReliefWeb [2018-10-22]. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Govt. Report: Luban Storm cost US$ one billion. Debriefer. 2018-11-02 [2018-11-08]. 
  25. ^ Yemen UNHCR Update, 13 - 26 October 2018 (PDF). High Commissioner for Refugees. ReliefWeb. 2018-10-26 [2018-11-01]. 
  26. ^ Yemen says 14 killed in Cyclone Luban. Associated Press. 2018-10-28 [2018-10-30]. 
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 Yemen: Cyclone Luban Flash Update #3 (21 October 2018) (PDF). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2018-10-21. ReliefWeb [2018-10-22]. 
  28. ^ Ahmed Al-Haj. Update: Cyclone Luban Hits Yemen, Injuring Dozens, Destroying Property. Insurance Journal. 2018-10-17 [2018-10-22]. 
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Yemen: Cyclone Luban Flash Update #1 (15 October 2018). United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2018-10-15. ReliefWeb [2018-10-22]. 
  30. ^ 30.0 30.1 Hassan Bashir. ERC ends isolation of cyclone-hit Mukalla villages. Emirates News Agency. 2018-10-27. ReliefWeb [2018-11-01].