2005 Atlantic hurricane season

2005 Atlantic hurricane season
Tracks of about 28 tropical storms, including 15 hurricanes, cluster in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, with some scattered in the Atlantic. Seven hurricanes are major, and most of them make landfall on the U.S. Gulf coast.
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 8, 2005
Last system dissipatedJanuary 6, 2006
(record latest, tied with 1954)
Strongest storm
NameWilma
(Most intense hurricane in the Atlantic basin)
 • Maximum winds185 mph (295 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions31 (record high)
Total storms28 (record high)
Hurricanes15 (record high)
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
7 (record high)
Total fatalities3,912 total
Total damage$171.755 billion (2005 USD)
(Second-costliest tropical cyclone season on record)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, with 31 tropical or subtropical cyclones. The National Hurricane Center named 27 storms, exhausting the annual pre-designated list and resulting in the usage of six Greek letter names. A record 15 storms attained hurricane status, with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h); of those, a record 7 hurricanes were major hurricanes, which are a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

Four of the season's storms became a Category 5 hurricane, the highest ranking on the scale. Emily in July reached peak intensity in the Caribbean Sea, later weakening and striking Mexico twice. In August, Katrina reached peak winds in the Gulf of Mexico, but weakened by the time it struck the U.S. states of Louisiana and Mississippi. The most devastating effects of the season were felt on the Gulf Coast of the United States, where Katrina's storm surge flooded in New Orleans, Louisiana, crippling the city for weeks, as well as the Mississippi coastline. Katrina became the costliest U.S. hurricane, leaving $125 billion in damage[nb 1] and 1,833 deaths. Rita followed in September, reaching peak intensity in the Gulf of Mexico before weakening and hitting near the border of Texas and Louisiana. The season's strongest hurricane, Wilma, became the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, as measured by barometric pressure. Lasting for ten days in October, Wilma moved over Cozumel, the Yucatán peninsula, and Florida, causing $19 billion in damage and 48 deaths.

The season's impact was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated 3,912 deaths and approximately $171.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season. It also produced the second-highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) in the Atlantic basin, surpassed only by the 1933 season. The season officially began on June 1, 2005, and the first storm – Arlene – developed on June 8. Hurricane Dennis in July inflicted heavy damage to Cuba. Hurricane Stan in October was part of a broader weather system that killed 1,668 people and caused $3.96 billion in damage to eastern Mexico and Central America, with Guatemala hit the hardest. The final storm – Zeta – formed in late December and lasted until January 6, 2006.

Seasonal forecasts

Source Date Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Refs
Average (1950–2004) 10.0 6.0 2.6 [1]
CSU December 3, 2004 11 6 3 [2]
TSR December 10, 2004 9.6 5.7 3.3 [3]
TSR January 5, 2005 13.9 7.8 3.6 [3]
TSR February 9, 2005 13.6 7.7 3.5 [3]
TSR March 7, 2005 14.0 7.9 3.6 [3]
CSU April 1, 2005 13 7 3 [4]
TSR April 5, 2005 13.9 7.8 3.6 [3]
InsMet May 2, 2005 13 7 N/A [3]
TSR May 5, 2005 13.9 7.8 3.6 [3]
NOAA May 16, 2005 12–15 7–9 3–5 [5]
CSU May 31, 2005 15 8 4 [6]
TSR June 7, 2005 13.8 7.8 3.5 [3]
TSR July 7, 2005 15.3 8.8 4.1 [3]
InsMet August 1, 2005 20 9 N/A [7]
NOAA August 2, 2005 18–21 9–11 5–7 [8]
TSR August 5, 2005 22.1 11.4 7.8 [7]
CSU August 5, 2005 20 10 6 [9]
CSU September 2, 2005 20 10 6 [10]
CSU October 3, 2005 20 11 6 [11]
Actual activity 28 15 7 [12]

Ahead of the season formally starting, Colorado State University (CSU), the Cuban Institute of Meteorology (InsMet), Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) each issued forecasts which discussed the upcoming season. They also included predictions for a variety of parameters, such as how many named storms, hurricanes and major hurricanes there would be and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country or territory within these forecasts. The first of these forecasts was issued by CSU, during December 5, 2004 who predicted that the season would be above average and feature 11 named storms, 6 hurricanes and 3 intense hurricanes.[2] They also noted that the Caribbean as well as the entire United States coastline faced an increased risk of a major hurricane making landfall.[2] TSR issued its first forecast a few days later and predicted that the season would feature 9.6 tropical storms, 5.7 hurricanes, 3.3 major hurricanes and predicted that the accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index would be 145.[3]

During January 2005, TSR increased its forecast to 13.9 tropical storms, 7.8 hurricanes, 3.6 major hurricanes and predicted that the ACE index would be 157.[3] CSU subsequently issued its first updated forecast during April 1, in which they increased their forecast to 13 tropical storms, 7 hurricanes and 3 major hurricanes and continued to forecast an increased risk of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States or the Caribbean.[4] This increase was based on the Atlantic continuing to warm and a strong belief that El Niño conditions would not persist into the hurricane season.[4] During May 2, the Cuban Institute of Meteorology (InsMet) issued their seasonal forecast, which predicted that the season would feature 13 tropical storms and 7 hurricanes.[3] This was followed on May 16 by NOAA who issued their seasonal outlook and predicted that the season had a 70% chance of being above normal and called for 12 - 15 tropical storms, 7 - 9 hurricanes as well as 3 - 5 major hurricanes.[5] Ahead of the season formally starting on June 1, CSU issued its second forecast update during May 31 and revised its forecast upwards to 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes.[6] This increase was based on the Atlantic continuing to warm and El Niño conditions now appearing unlikely to develop during the season.[6]

After only tweaking their forecasts slightly since their January forecast update, TSR increased their forecast to 15.3 tropical storms, 8.8 hurricanes, 4.1 major hurricanes and an ACE Index of 190 within their July forecast update.[3] As a result, TSR anticipated that the season would be exceptionally active and well above average.[3] By the end of July, seven tropical storms and two major hurricanes had developed within the basin, which prompted CSU, InsMet, NOAA and TSR to significantly increase their seasonal forecasts at the start of August.[7][8][9] Within their August forecast update, CSU predicted that August would feature 5 named storms, 3 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane.[9] They also predicted that September would feature 5 named storms, 2 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane while October would feature 3 named storms, 2 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane.[9] At the start of September, CSU updated their forecasts and predicted that September would feature 5 named storms, 4 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes, but continued to forecast that October would feature 3 named storms, 2 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane.[10] At the start of September, CSU updated their forecasts to account for activity through August and predicted that September would feature 5 named storms, 4 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes, but continued to forecast that October would feature 3 named storms, 2 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane.[10] By the end of September, 17 named storms had developed, of which 9 had developed into hurricanes and 4 had become major hurricanes. Within their final update for the year, CSU continued to predict that October would feature 3 named storms, 2 hurricanes and 1 major hurricane, but they were forced to increase the overall number of hurricanes that would develop to 11.[11]

Seasonal summary

Tropical Storm ZetaHurricane Epsilon (2005)Tropical Storm Delta (2005)Tropical Storm Gamma (2005)Hurricane Beta (2005)Tropical Storm Alpha (2005)Hurricane WilmaHurricane Vince (2005)Tropical Storm Tammy (2005)2005 Azores subtropical stormHurricane StanHurricane RitaHurricane Ophelia (2005)Hurricane Nate (2005)Hurricane Maria (2005)Hurricane KatrinaTropical Storm Jose (2005)Hurricane Irene (2005)Tropical Storm Gert (2005)Hurricane Emily (2005)Hurricane DennisHurricane Cindy (2005)Tropical Storm Bret (2005)Tropical Storm Arlene (2005)Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
Flooding in New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active on record.[13] The 27 named storms and the unnamed subtropical storm set the record for most storms, surpassing the total of 20 from 1933. The 2005 season featured a record 15 hurricanes, surpassing the previous record of 12, set in 1969. The 2005 season also featured a record seven major hurricanes, one more than the previous record, set in 1926, 1933, 1950, 1996, and 2004. The four Category 5 hurricanes was also a record.[14][15] The season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 250, the second highest value on record in the Atlantic basin, after the 1933 season. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs.[16]

The extreme activity was due to a variety of environmental conditions, including La Niña conditions, record warm sea surface temperatures across the basin, lower than normal wind shear, and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Most of the storms formed outside of the deep tropics and Caribbean Sea. There was often higher than normal wind shear across the deep Atlantic Ocean. At the same time, a persistent ridge over the eastern United States contributed to the lower than normal wind shear over the Gulf of Mexico. A weaker than normal Bermuda high reduced the trade winds across the Atlantic, while warmer air arose from the equator. Activity continued late in the season, with a record 10 storms forming in the last three months of the year.[13]

The storms of the season were extraordinarily damaging and were responsible for significant loss of life. Total damage is estimated to be about US$171.7 billion, and the seasons' storms contributed to the deaths of 3,912 people.[12] There were a record 15 storms making landfall,[13] including seven storms that struck the United States.[14]

The hardest-hit area was the United States Gulf Coast from eastern Texas to Florida, affected to varying degrees by Arlene, Cindy, Dennis, Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, Tammy, and Wilma.[12] Hurricane Dennis caused $2.23 billion in damage along the Florida Panhandle.[17] Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic damage to the Gulf Coast, devastating a long stretch of coast along Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama with a 30-foot (9 m) storm surge. Wind damage was reported well inland, slowing down recovery efforts. Storm surge also breached levees in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, flooding about 80% of the city. Total damage has been estimated at $125 billion, making Katrina the costliest hurricane in U.S. history, surpassing 1992's Hurricane Andrew and tied with 2017's Hurricane Harvey. There were at least 1,836 people were killed by the storm, making it the deadliest hurricane in the U.S. since 1928.[18][19][20] Southeastern North Carolina suffered some damage from the slow-moving Hurricane Ophelia.[21] Hurricane Rita struck near the border of Louisiana and Texas. The hurricane re-flooded New Orleans (though to a far less degree than Katrina), and caused about $18.5 billion in damage.[22] Wilma caused about $19 billion in damage when it moved across southern Florida in October. The hurricane contributed to 30 deaths, five of whom were killed directly by the storm.[23][24]

Three hurricanes struck Mexico – Emily, Stan, and Wilma. Emily struck Quintana Roo and Tamaulipas as a major hurricane,[25] causing US$343 million ($3.4 billion MXN) in damage.[26] Stan killed 80 people in Mexico, and damage in the county was estimated at US$1.2 billion ($13.2 billion MXN). Stan was part of a broader weather system across Central America that killed 1,513 people in Guatemala, where damage was estimated at US$996 million.[27][28][26][29] Wilma dropped historic rainfall while drifting across the Yucatán peninsula.[30] It killed four people in the country and left US$454 million ($4.8 billion MXN) in damage.[31][26]

In the Caribbean, Cuba suffered the effects of Hurricane Dennis and Wilma. Dennis killed 16 people and left US$1.4 billion in damage when it struck Cuba twice.[32] Later, Wilma flooded parts of western Cuba, leaving US$704 million in damage.[32] The island of Hispaniola experienced Hurricane Dennis in July, which killed 56 people in Haiti.[33] Hurricane Emily killed one person and left US$111 million in damage when it struck Grenada,[34] and later it killed five people on Jamaica.[25] Collectively, Emily and earlier Hurricane Dennis caused about US$96 million (J$6 billion) in damage to Jamaica.[35] Hurricane Wilma killed 12 people in Haiti and one in Jamaica.[31] Tropical Storm Alpha killed 26 people in the Caribbean.[36] In Central America, Hurricane Beta killed nine people and caused US$11.5 million in damage when it struck Nicaragua in October.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] In November, Tropical Storm Gamma killed two people in Bequia in the Grenadines, 34 people in Honduras, and 3 in Belize.[45][46]

Unusual impacts were felt in Europe and nearby islands. The remnants of Hurricane Maria caused a landslide in Norway that killed three people.[47][48] The unnamed subtropical storm in October moved through the Azores.[49] Also in October, Tropical Depression Vince became the first recorded tropical cyclone on record to strike Spain.[50] In November, former Tropical Storm Delta struck the Canary Islands as an extratropical cyclone, causing and leaving seven fatalities, with 12 people missing.[51]

Systems

Tropical Storm Arlene

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Arlene 11 june 2005 1645Z.jpg Arlene 2005 track.png
DurationJune 8 – June 13
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

The season's first tropical depression developed north of Honduras on June 8. A day later it intensified into Tropical Storm Arlene while taking a northward track. On June 10, Arlene struck western Cuba, producing wind gusts of 49 mph (79 km/h) at Punta del Este and 6.81 in (173 mm) of rainfall in the city of Pinar del Río. Arlene intensified further in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, reaching winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) early on June 11. Later that day, the storm moved ashore just west of Pensacola, Florida. Over the next two days, Arlene continued northward through the United States, dissipating over southeastern Canada on June 14.[52] Arlene left mostly minor damage throughout the United States, estimated at $11.8 million. Storm surge damaged coastal roads in the Florida Panhandle and Alabama. In Miami Beach, Florida, a student died when she was caught in a rip current.[52] Rainfall in the United States peaked at 9.84 in (250 mm) in Lake Toxaway, North Carolina.[53] The remnants of Arlene dropped approximately 6 to 7 in (150 to 180 mm) of rainfall in Warren County, New York, in just two hours, washing out several roadways and flooding numerous homes.[54]

Tropical Storm Bret

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tsbret2005.jpg Bret 2005 track.png
DurationJune 28 – June 30
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

On June 28, an area of disturbed weather organized into a tropical depression in the Bay of Campeche. A day later, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Bret, with peak winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). On June 29, Bret moved ashore northeastern Mexico near Tuxpan, Veracruz, dissipating a day later over San Luis Potosí.[55] Bret dropped heavy rainfall, reaching at least 10.47 in (266 mm) in El Raudal, Veracruz.[56] One person drowned in Cerro Azul, and one death occurred in Naranjos due to cardiac arrest. The floods damaged around 3,000 houses, isolated 66 villages, and caused about $100 million (MXN, US$9.2 million) in damage.[57][26]

Hurricane Cindy

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Cindy 2005-07-05.jpg Cindy 2005 track.png
DurationJuly 3 – July 7
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed on July 3 in the western Caribbean Sea.[58] The depression crossed the Yucatán Peninsula and dropped rainfall, reaching 2.8 in (71 mm) in Cancún.[30] The system entered the Gulf of Mexico, strengthening into Tropical Storm Cindy early on July 5. Cindy intensified further into a minimal hurricane early on July 6, with peak winds of 75 mph (120 km/h). The hurricane struck southeastern Louisiana and later southern Mississippi. Cindy continued across the southeastern United States and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on July 7 over the Carolinas; it eventually dissipated over the Gulf of St. Lawrence on July 12.[58] Across the United States, the hurricane caused $320 million in damage and three fatalities – one in Georgia from flooding, and two in Maryland from a car crash.[58][59] Across Louisiana, the hurricane left 280,000 people without power.[58] Rainfall in the United States peaked at 9.50 in (241 mm) in Saint Bernard, Louisiana.[53] Cindy spawned a large tornado outbreak, including an F2 tornado that damaged the Atlanta Motor Speedway.[58]

Hurricane Dennis

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Dennis 2004-07-10 1215Z.png Dennis 2005 track.png
DurationJuly 4 – July 13
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Four formed in the southeastern Caribbean late on July 4, which strengthened into Tropical Storm Dennis early the next day. The storm moved west-northwestward, strengthening into a hurricane on July 6 to the south of Hispaniola. On the next day, Dennis rapidly intensified into a Category 4 hurricane while moving between Jamaica and Haiti. On July 8, the hurricane briefly moved over Granma Province in southeastern Cuba. Dennis strengthened to reach peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and moved ashore again in Matanzas Province. The hurricane crossed Cuba into the Gulf of Mexico and re-intensified, only to weaken prior to its final landfall on July 10 near Pensacola, Florida. Dennis eventually dissipated on July 18 over Ontario after drifting through the Ohio Valley.[17]

The outer rainbands of Dennis produced widespread flooding and landslides in Haiti, killing at least 56 people and leaving US$50 million in damage.[33][60] Dennis brought torrential rain to Jamaica, reaching 24.54 in (623 mm) in Mavis Bank. One person died in Jamaica, and damage was estimated at US$31.7 million.[17] The storm's heaviest rainfall occurred in Cuba, reaching 43.0 in (1,092 mm), making Dennis the wettest storm for the island since Hurricane Flora of 1963.[61] Across the island, Dennis killed 16 people, and left US$1.4 billion in damage, affecting agriculture, tourist areas, infrastructure, and houses.[32] Damage in the United States totaled $2.545 billion, and there were 15 deaths in the country, all but one in Florida.[17] Rainfall in the United States reached 12.80 in (325 mm) near Camden, Alabama.[53]

Hurricane Emily

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Emily 16 july 2005 1545Z.jpg Emily 2005 track.png
DurationJuly 11 – July 21
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  929 mbar (hPa)

On July 11, a tropical depression formed east of the Lesser Antilles, and quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Emily. Moving westward, Emily strengthened into a minimal hurricane and struck Grenada at that intensity on July 14. Continuing across the Caribbean Sea, Emily eventually strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane on July 16 to the southwest of Jamaica, reaching peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). The hurricane weakened thereafter, striking the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula on July 18. Emily emerged into the Gulf of Mexico and restrengthened, making another landfall in Mexico on July 18 in Tamaulipas. A day later, Emily dissipated over land.[25]

In Grenada, Emily killed one person and caused US$111 million in damage, with thousands of roofs damaged. The hurricane's large circulation also damaged houses in other nearby islands. Heavy rainfall from Emily affected Haiti, killing five people.[34][62] In Jamaica, Emily produced 15.43 in (392 mm) of rainfall; associated flooding killed five people on the island.[25] Collectively, Emily and earlier Hurricane Dennis left about US$96 million (J$6 billion) in damage to Jamaica.[35] In Honduras, a man drowned in a river swollen by rains from Emily.[63] Damage was heaviest where Emily made its two landfalls in Mexico,[25] with damage in the country estimated at US$343 million ($3.4 billion MXN).[26] Two helicopter pilots were killed when their aircraft crashed while evacuating offshore oil platforms operated by Pemex. A man in Playa del Carmen was electrocuted to death while preparing for the hurricane.[63] The outskirts of Emily dropped heavy rainfall in southern Texas, damaging about $4.7 million worth of cotton.[64]

Tropical Storm Franklin

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
TS Franklin 23 july 2005 1545Z.jpg Franklin 2005 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 29
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Six formed northeast of the Bahamas on July 21, originating from a tropical wave that exited the coast of Africa on July 10. The depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Franklin. Wind shear disrupted the storm's initial development, which decreased as the storm moved to the north and northeast. On July 23, Franklin attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). An approaching trough turned the storm to the northwest and caused Franklin to weaken to a minimal tropical storm. On July 26, the storm passed west of Bermuda, which recorded wind gusts of 37 mph (59 km/h). Franklin restrengthened slightly as it accelerated northeastward. On July 30, the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone south of Nova Scotia, and a day later it was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm near Newfoundland.[65] The storm brought light rainfall to Newfoundland.[66]

Tropical Storm Gert

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gert Jul 24 2005 1935Z.jpg Gert 2005 track.png
DurationJuly 23 – July 25
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Seven formed in the Bay of Campeche from a tropical wave. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Gert the next day, reaching peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before making landfall in Mexico near Tampico. Gert dissipated on July 25 after moving farther inland. The storm struck roughly the same area as Emily just four days earlier.[67] Gert dropped heavy rainfall, reaching 8.46 in (214.9 mm) in San Luis Potosí.[30] Gert caused about $6 million (2005 USD, $60 million 2005 MXN) in damage,[68] and resulted in one fatality in Nuevo León.[69]

Tropical Storm Harvey

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Harvey 2005-08-04 1740Z.jpg Harvey 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 2 – August 8
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Eight formed on August 2 southwest of Bermuda from a tropical wave that left the African coast on July 22. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Harvey on August 3 while moving northeastward.[70] Due to strong wind shear, Harvey initially exhibited subtropical characteristics.[71] On August 4, Harvey passed 45 mi (75 km) south of Bermuda. After moving away from the island, Harvey attained peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) late on August 4. Harvey continued northeastward for a few days, transitioning into an extratropical storm on August 9. The storm gradually weakened and eventually dissipated northwest of the Azores on August 14.[70]

On Bermuda, Harvey dropped 5.02 in (128 mm) of rainfall at Bermuda International Airport, flooding some roads. Sustained winds on the island reached 45 mph (75 km/h).[70]

Hurricane Irene

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Irene 2005-08-16.jpg Irene 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 4 – August 18
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Nine formed west of Cape Verde on August 4. It moved to the northwest without much initial development. On August 7, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Irene, only to weaken into a tropical depression again the next day. Irene turned to the west, and later resumed its northwest track. It re-intensified into a tropical storm on August 11. On August 15, Irene turned to the north, passing between Bermuda and North Carolina. On the next day, the storm strengthened into a hurricane, and intensified further after turning to the northeast and later east. Late on August 16, Irene attained peak winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). An approaching trough weakened Irene and caused it to accelerate northeastward. On August 18, Irene weakened into a tropical storm, and later that day was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm to the southeast of Newfoundland.[72] Rip currents near Long Beach, New York killed a 16-year-old boy.[73]

Tropical Depression Ten

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
10L 2005-08-13 1550Z.jpg 10-L 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 13 – August 14
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1008 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Ten formed between the Lesser Antilles and Cape Verde on August 13 from a tropical wave that entered the Atlantic five days earlier.[74] The depression moved slowly westward in an environment of strong vertical shear. Some weather models predicted relaxing shear and intensification of the system;[75] however, the hostile conditions ripped the system apart, and the NHC discontinued advisories on August 14 when no organized deep convection remained. The remnants of Tropical Depression Ten continued drifting northwestward before degenerating into a tropical wave north of the Leeward Islands. Producing occasional bursts of convection, the mid-level remnant circulation eventually merged with another system. This new system would become Tropical Depression Twelve over the Bahamas and, eventually, Hurricane Katrina.[74]

Tropical Storm Jose

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Jose 2005-08-23 Terra.jpg Jose 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 22 – August 23
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Eleven formed in the warm waters of the Bay of Campeche on August 22. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Jose later that day and achieved a maximum strength of 60 mph (95 km/h). Jose made landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz near the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station on August 23. The cyclone became more organized two hours before making landfall and was forming an eye, but its winds remained under hurricane strength. Jose rapidly weakened and soon dissipated as it moved inland over Mexico.[76] While drenching Mexico's Gulf coast, Jose forced some 25,000 residents from their homes in Veracruz state and damaged at least 16,000 homes in the state.[77][78] Jose killed 11 people in Veracruz and 5 in Oaxaca.[26][76] Damage in Mexico totaled roughly $45 million.[78]

Hurricane Katrina

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Katrina 2005-08-28 1700Z.jpg Katrina 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 23 – August 30
Peak intensity175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  902 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather over the Bahamas developed into a tropical depression on August 23. The depression became a tropical storm on August 24 and a hurricane on August 25. It made landfall on August 25 in southern Florida, before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico a few hours later. Katrina rapidly intensified to Category 5 status early on August 28, becoming the fourth most intense recorded hurricane in the Atlantic basin. Turning northward, the storm weakened to a Category 4 and further to a Category 3 hurricane with 125 mph (200 km/h) winds prior to landfall in southeastern Louisiana on August 29. Katrina then crossed the Breton Sound and held its strength, making a third and final landfall with 120 mph (190 km/h) winds near Pearlington, Mississippi. The cyclone quickly weakened after moving inland and became extratropical over Kentucky on August 30.[18]

Hurricane Katrina imparted catastrophic damage in portions of Louisiana and Mississippi, with overall damage estimated at $125 billion; this makes Katrina the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history, tied with Hurricane Harvey in 2017.[79] Katrina first affected Florida, leaving about $500 million in crop and infrastructure damage.[80][81] In New Orleans, storm surge breached the levees along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and 17th Street and London Avenue Canals, flooding about 80% of the city. Portions of the city remained underwater for 43 days.[18] The hurricane left catastrophic damage across southern Louisiana, with more than 300,000 houses damaged or destroyed; most of these were in Orleans Parish.[82] The Mississippi and Alabama coastlines suffered catastrophic damage from the storm's 30 ft (9 m) storm surge, with very few structures remaining on the coast of the former. Throughout the United States, Katrina killed 1,833 people, making it one of the deadliest hurricanes in the United States.[18]

Tropical Storm Lee

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Lee 2005-08-31 1415Z.jpg Lee 2005 track.png
DurationAugust 28 – September 2
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 24. It developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen on August 28 while 960 mi (1550 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Strong wind shear prevented much organization, and the depression degenerated into a low pressure area late on August 29. The remnants moved to the north and northeast, steered by a larger non-tropical system to the north. The convection increased on August 31; that day the system regenerated into a tropical depression, which strengthened further into Tropical Storm Lee. The storm attained peak winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) while located between Bermuda and the Azores. After 12 hours as a tropical storm, Lee weakened back to a tropical depression as it turned to the northwest, steered by the larger non-tropical storm. On September 2, the depression degenerated into a remnant low, which was absorbed by a cold front two days later.[83]

Hurricane Maria

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Maria 2005-09-06 0135Z.jpg Maria 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 10
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Fourteen formed from a tropical wave between the Leeward Islands and Cape Verde on September 1. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Maria on the next day while moving northwestward. Early on September 4, Maria became the fifth hurricane of the season, and a day later it reached peak winds of 115 mph (185 km/h), making it the fourth major hurricane of the season. Around that time, Maria turned to the north and northeast, moving around the subtropical ridge, as it gradually weakened. Maria weakened into a tropical storm on September 9, and became extratropical a day later between Newfoundland and the Azores. The former hurricane re-intensified over the northern Atlantic Ocean, only to weaken before passing near southern Iceland. On September 14, the extratropical storm that was once Maria merged with another extratropical storm while approaching Norway. The remnants of Maria brought heavy rainfall to Norway, triggering a landslide in Bergen that killed three people and injured seven others.[47][84][48]

Hurricane Nate

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Nate 2005-09-09 0205Z.jpg Nate 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 5 – September 10
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  979 mbar (hPa)

A cold front exited the eastern United States on September 1 and spawned two low pressure areas. The westernmost one became Hurricane Ophelia,[21] and the eastern low organized into a tropical depression south of Bermuda on September 5. This depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Nate, which moved slowly northeastward. On September 7, Nate intensified into the sixth hurricane of the season. A day later, the hurricane passed southeast of Bermuda,[85] where it produced wind gusts of 50 mph (80 km/h).[86] Early on September 9, Nate attained peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h), as it accelerated northeastward ahead of a trough. The same trough created unfavorable conditions, causing Nate to weaken quickly back to tropical storm status. On September 10, Nate transitioned into an extratropical storm, which was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm near the Azores on September 13.[85] Canadian Navy ships headed to the U.S. Gulf Coast to help in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina were slowed down trying to avoid Nate and Ophelia.[87] Rip currents caused by hurricanes Nate and Maria killed one person in New Jersey, and severely injured another person.[88]

Hurricane Ophelia

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Ophelia 14 sept 2005 1605Z.jpg Ophelia 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 6 – September 17
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  976 mbar (hPa)

The same trough that spawned Nate led to the development of Hurricane Ophelia. Tropical Depression Sixteen formed over the northern Bahamas on September 6. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Ophelia on September 7, and briefly into a hurricane on September 9 while stalled off the east coast of Florida. Ophelia fluctuated between hurricane and tropical storm intensity for the next week as it meandered off the southeastern United States. Twice it attained peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). On September 14, the northern eyewall moved over the North Carolina coast from Wilmington to Morehead City. After moving away from the state, Ophelia weakened to tropical storm status for a fourth and final time, due to stronger wind shear and dry air. The storm accelerated northeastward and passed southeast of Cape Cod. Ophelia transitioned into an extratropical storm on September 18, and subsequently crossed Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, eventually dissipating on September 23 north of the Scandinavian Peninsula.[21]

Ophelia caused significant coastal erosion from the churning waves. The hurricane caused extensive damage in the Outer Banks and around Cape Fear. Damage in the United States was estimated at $70 million. The storm's remnants produced strong winds and heavy rain over Atlantic Canada. Ophelia killed three people – a drowning in Florida from high surf, a traffic fatality in North Carolina, and a death from a fall in Nova Scotia.[21][89]

Hurricane Philippe

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Philippe 2005-09-19 0525Z.jpg Philippe 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 17 – September 23
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

On September 17, Tropical Depression Seventeen formed from a tropical wave about 350 miles (560 km) east of Barbados. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Philippe while taking a track to the north-northwest. Early on September 19, Philippe attained hurricane status, and reached peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) a day later. Wind shear from an upper-level low caused the hurricane to weaken back to a tropical storm, exposing the center from the convection. On September 21, Philippe accelerated to the north and began moving around the upper-level low, which had extended to the surface and developed into a non-tropical cyclone. The storm briefly threatened Bermuda as it turned to the northwest and began a counterclockwise loop. On September 23, Philippe weakened to a tropical depression and later a remnant low; it was absorbed by the larger non-tropical cyclone a day later.[90] Philippe brought gusty winds and moisture to Bermuda, with 0.15 inches (3.8 mm) of precipitation reported on September 23. The circulation that absorbed Philippe dropped light rainfall on the island, and was responsible for the lowest barometric pressure during the month.[91]

Hurricane Rita

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
HurricaneRita21Sept05a.jpg Rita 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 18 – September 26
Peak intensity180 mph (285 km/h) (1-min)  895 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed on September 18 near the Turks and Caicos Islands, which quickly organized into Tropical Storm Rita. Moving to the west-northwest, the storm's intensification attenuated over the Bahamas before resuming thereafter, becoming a hurricane on September 20 between Cuba and Florida. Rapid intensification ensued as Rita moved into the Gulf of Mexico. Late on September 21, Rita strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane, and the next day attained peak winds of 180 mph (285 km/h).[92] Its minimum pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg) was the lowest of any storm in the Gulf of Mexico on record.[93] The hurricane weakened as it approached the northwest Gulf Coast. On September 24, Rita made landfall near the Texas/Louisiana border with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). It rapidly weakened over land as it turned to the north and northeast. Rita was absorbed by an approaching cold front on September 26 over Illinois.[92]

Across the United States, Rita imparted $18.5 billion in damage, and killed 120 people, although only seven deaths were directly related to the hurricane.[23][94][92] Early in its evolution, Rita flooded houses in northern Cuba and the Florida Keys.[95][92] Rita's approach to the U.S. gulf coast prompted one of the largest mass evacuations in the country's history, with an estimated 3.7 million people fleeing the Texas coast between Corpus Christi and Beaumont.[92][96] Due in part to high temperatures preceding Rita's landfall and elderly susceptibility to excessive heat, at least 80 people died during the mass evacuation;[97] a coach fire en route to Dallas claimed 23 lives.[98] Rita generated a 15 ft (4.6 m)-storm surge that devastated parts of Cameron Parish in Louisiana,[99] destroying most structures in towns like Cameron and Holly Beach. Storm surge also damaged homes in adjoining Jefferson County in Texas. Impacts from heavy rainfall, gusty winds, and tornadoes associated with Rita affected much of the lower Mississippi River Valley, and over a million electricity customers lost power.[92]

Tropical Depression Nineteen

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
TD 19 2005-09-30.jpg 19-L 2005 track.png
DurationSeptember 30 – October 2
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

On September 30, a tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Nineteen to the west of Cape Verde. It moved northwestward and failed to intensify beyond winds of 35 mph (55 km/h), due to the presence of strong wind shear. The depression dissipated on October 2 without affecting land.[100]

Hurricane Stan

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Stan 2005-10-04 0755Z.jpg Stan 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 1 – October 5
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  977 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Twenty formed in the western Caribbean on October 1, which intensnfied into Tropical Storm Stan a day later. Stan crossed the Yucatán Peninsula and emerged into the Bay of Campeche. On October 4, the storm strengthened into a hurricane, reaching peak winds of 70 mph (130 km/h) as it moved ashore in Veracruz. The circulation of Stan dissipated a day later over Mexico.[28]

Stan killed 80 people in Mexico, and damage in the county was estimated at US$1.2 billion ($13.2 billion MXN).[28][26] Stan was associated with a larger weather system across eastern Mexico and Central America.[28] Torrential rainfall across this region killed 1,513 people in Guatemala,[27] making it the deadliest natural disaster in the country's history.[101] Damage in Guatemala was estimated at US$996 million.[29] El Salvador's Santa Ana Volcano erupted on October 1, occurring simultaneous to the flooding.[102] The flooding killed 69 people in the country, and damage from the two disasters was estimated at US$355.6 million.[103][104] In Honduras, the weather system killed seven people and left US$100 million in damage.[105] There were also three deaths in Nicaragua and one in Costa Rica.[106] Road damage in Costa Rica from Stan and earlier Hurricane Rita was estimated at US$57 million (₡28 billion (CRC).[107]

Unnamed Subtropical Storm

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Unnamed SS 2005-10-04 1220Z.jpg 2005 Atlantic subtropical storm 19 track.png
DurationOctober 4 – October 5
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

In the post-season analysis, the National Hurricane Center identified an additional subtropical storm that had gone unclassified during the course of the season. The storm formed on October 4 and was absorbed by a non-tropical low the next day after passing over the Azores, where Santa Maria Island reported sustained winds up to 40 mph (60 km/h). The low that absorbed the storm would eventually become Hurricane Vince. At its peak, the storm had winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar (hPa). No damages or casualties were reported.[49]

Tropical Storm Tammy

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tammy 2005-10-05 1625Z.jpg Tammy 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 5 – October 6
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

On October 5, Tropical Storm Tammy developed east of Florida. That day, it strengthened to reached peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h), and made landfall near Jacksonville, Florida. Tammy weakened as it moved inland, crossing southern Georgia and Alabama. It was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm on October 6. Tammy dropped locally heavy rainfall along its path, causing minor damage.[108] The frontal system that absorbed Tammy was a partial cause for severe flooding in New York, New Jersey and New England that killed 10 people in mid-October.[109][110]

Subtropical Depression Twenty-two

Subtropical depression (SSHWS)
SD 22 2005-10-08 1647Z.jpg 22-L 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 8 – October 10
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1008 mbar (hPa)

Subtropical Depression Twenty-two formed from a non-tropical low 450 mi (725 km) southeast of Bermuda on October 8. The system encountered unfavorable conditions as it turned westward and degenerated into a remnant low on October 10, before becoming extratropical on the following day. The NHC continued to monitor the remnant as it headed towards the East Coast of the United States. The extratropical system continued to pull tropical moisture northward,[111] and was, along with Tropical Storm Tammy, a partial cause of severe flooding in New York, New Jersey and New England during early-to-mid-October.[112] The flooding killed 10 people after 6 to 10 in (150 to 250 mm) of precipitation fell in some locales.[110]

Hurricane Vince

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Vince2005.jpg Vince 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 8 – October 11
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  988 mbar (hPa)

Subtropical Storm Vince formed in east Atlantic near Madeira on October 8. Vince transitioned into a tropical storm on the following day and was upgraded to a hurricane shortly thereafter. Although Vince was a very small and short-lived storm that only briefly reached hurricane strength, it was notable for developing in the eastern Atlantic, well away from where hurricanes are usually form. Vince made landfall on the Iberian Peninsula near Huelva, Spain, on October 11 just after weakening to a tropical depression. Vince was the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall in Spain.[50] The storm left minor flooding in some areas.[113][114]

Hurricane Wilma

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Wilma 2005-10-19 0712Z.jpg Wilma 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 15 – October 25
Peak intensity185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min)  882 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Twenty-four formed southwest of Jamaica on October 15, which strengthened into Tropical Storm Wilma on October 17. Wilma moved slowly through the warm waters of the western Caribbean Sea, and began a period of rapid deepening on October 18 that lasted into the following day. This culminated in the Wilma attaining Category 5 hurricane status, reaching peak winds of 185 mph (295 km/h), and setting a record for the lowest barometric pressure in an Atlantic hurricane; at 12:00 UTC on October 19, the Hurricane Hunters recorded a pressure of 882 mbar (26.0 inHg) in the center of the tiny, well-defined eye of Wilma.[31]

Wilma weakened to Category 4 intensity by the time it made landfall on Cozumel on October 21. It later crossed the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula, and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico, turning northeast. On October 24, Wilma made landfall in southwestern Florida at Cape Romano with winds of 120 mph (190 km/h). The hurricane quickly crossed the state and continued across the western Atlantic Ocean. Wilma transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 26, which was absorbed by a larger extratropical storm a day later over Atlantic Canada.[31]

In its formative stages, Wilma's large circulation spread across much of the western Caribbean Sea, killing 12 people in Haiti and one in Jamaica.[31] Wilma set a record in Mexico for the highest 24 hour rainfall total, with 62.0 in (1,576 mm) recorded at Isla Mujeres.[30] There were four deaths in Mexico, and nationwide damage was estimated at US$454 million ($4.8 billion MXN).[31][26] A significant storm surge flooded areas of western Cuba, leaving US$704 million in damage.[32] In Florida, Wilma caused $19 billion in damage and killed 30 people; five of the deaths were caused directly by the hurricane.[23][24][31] Later, Wilma killed one person and left US$6.4 million in damage to the Bahamas, when it passed northwest of the country.[31][30]

Tropical Storm Alpha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Alpha 2005-10-22 1530Z.jpg Alpha 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 22 – October 24
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Twenty-five in the eastern Caribbean on October 22. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Alpha as it moved west-northwestward. Around 10:00 UTC on October 23, Alpha made landfall near Barahona, Dominican Republic, with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). Alpha weakened to a tropical depression over Hispaniola's steep mountains. The cyclone emerged into the Atlantic Ocean, where it was absorbed by Hurricane Wilma on October 24. Alpha was the 22nd named system in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, breaking the 1933 season's record and becoming the first tropical storm to be named using the Greek Alphabet. The storm claimed 26 lives, with more than half of them in Haiti.[36] Alpha destroyed 43 homes and damaged 191 others in Haiti.[115]

Hurricane Beta

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Beta 2005-10-30 0655Z.jpg Beta 2005 track.png
DurationOctober 26 – October 31
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)

Late on October 26, a broad area of low pressure in the southwestern Caribbean developed and became Tropical Depression Twenty-six. Six hours later, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Beta. The strengthened into a hurricane on October 29 and reached major hurricane intensity on October 30 with sustained winds around 115 mph (185 km/h). That brought the total number of major hurricanes in the 2005 season to seven, a record breaking achievement. However, Beta weakened to a Category 2 prior to landfall in Nicaragua. The storm rapidly weakened inland and dissipated on October 31. The Colombian island of Providencia was subjected to hurricane-force winds for several hours as the center of the storm moved very slowly by the island. Reports indicate extensive damage to homes and a loss of communications with the islanders.[116] In Honduras and Nicaragua, over 1,000 structures were damaged by the storm, hundreds of which were destroyed. Overall, Beta caused nine fatalities and more than $15.5 million in damage across four countries.[39][40][41][37][42][43][38][44]

Tropical Storm Gamma

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gamma 2005-11-19 1515Z.jpg Gamma 2005 track.png
DurationNovember 14 – November 21
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Late on November 13, Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven formed from a tropical wave about 115 mi (185 km) west-southwest of St. Lucia.[46] While passing through the Lesser Antilles, the heavy rainfall caused mudslides, killing two people on Bequia.[45] The cyclone briefly attained tropical storm status, but wind shear prevented further development of the system, and advisories were discontinued on November 16 as it lost its closed circulation about 305 mi (490 km) southeast of Kingston, Jamaica. The remnants of the depression continued westward and moved along the northern shore of Honduras, merging with parts of a larger low pressure system. It is uncertain whether the remnants of Gamma absorbed the low pressure system or vice versa. The storm strengthened and a closed circulation formed on November 18, making Gamma a tropical storm for the second time. After regeneration, and after making landfall over northern Honduras, floods from Gamma killed 34 people in Honduras. Three people died in Belize related to the storm. Gamma meandered in the Caribbean Sea for a short time, until slowly weakening and eventually disintegrating into a remnant low late on November 20.[46] The storm caused 39 deaths in total.[46][45]

Tropical Storm Delta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ts delta 112405.jpg Delta 2005 track.png
DurationNovember 22 – November 28
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

A strong non-tropical low near the Azores slowly drifted southward and attained tropical characteristics on November 22 while entering increasingly warmer waters. Delta drifted slowly and erratically southwards for several days before accelerating north-eastwards then eastwards towards the Canary Islands and north Africa. On November 28 it merged with a frontal system northwest of the Canary Islands and became a vigorous extratropical storm. It caused severe damage in the Canary Islands and claimed at least seven lives, including six who drowned after boats overturned; there were 12 people missing from the overturned boat.[51] El Dedo de Dios, a geological feature which had been pointing towards the sky for over a millennium and an important landmark for the Canary Islands, was toppled during the storm.[117] Damage throughout the Canary Islands was estimated at 312 million ($364 million 2005 US dollars).[118] Delta also caused power outages, leaving some 200,000 people without power and forcing airports to close down.[51][119] The remnants of Delta later moved into Morocco, bringing needed rain.[120]

Hurricane Epsilon

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Epsilon 2005-12-05 1545Z.jpg Epsilon 2005 track.png
DurationNovember 29 – December 8
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  981 mbar (hPa)

On November 29, Tropical Storm Epsilon formed in the Central Atlantic from a non-tropical storm. The NHC consistently forecast that the storm would weaken; however, Epsilon gradually intensified as it moved westward and later looped to the northeast. The storm attained hurricane status on December 2 as the track shifted to the east. Epsilon attained peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) on December 5, maintaining its intensity due to low wind shear. A ridge turned Epsilon to the southwest on December 6. Epsilon lasted as a hurricane until December 7, the moat for any Atlantic tropical cyclone in December. Epsilon degenerated into a remnant low on December 8; the circulation dissipated two days later.[121]

Tropical Storm Zeta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Zeta 2005.jpg Zeta 2005 track.png
DurationDecember 30 – January 6
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Towards the end of December, an upper-level low interacted with a cold front, which produced a low pressure area by December 28 about 750 mi (1,205 km) west-northwest of the Cape Verde Islands. On December 30, the system organized into a tropical depression over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, which quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Zeta. The storm formed more than four weeks after the official end to the season. Zeta moved to the northwest at first, followed by a turn to the southwest. On January 1, Zeta joined Hurricane Alice in 1954 as the only known Atlantic tropical cyclones to exist in two calendar years. On the same day, Zeta attained peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). It weakened on January 2, only to re-intensify to its peak intensity on January 3. Zeta weakened again as it turned westward, degenerating into a remnant low on January 6; the circulation dissipated on the next day to the southeast of Bermuda.[122] Zeta affected the 2005 Atlantic Rowing Race by producing high swells that moved boats off course.[123]

Storm names

Names used for tropical storms and hurricanes that formed in the North Atlantic in 2005 were:

  • Arlene
  • Bret
  • Cindy
  • Dennis
  • Emily
  • Franklin
  • Gert
  • Harvey
  • Irene
  • Jose
  • Katrina
  • Lee
  • Maria
  • Nate
  • Ophelia
  • Philippe
  • Rita
  • Stan
  • Tammy
  • Vince
  • Wilma
  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma
  • Delta
  • Epsilon
  • Zeta

This was the same list used for the 1999 season, with the exceptions of Franklin and Lee, which replaced Floyd and Lenny. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. Fifteen names were used within the Atlantic for the first time in 2005: Franklin, Lee, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rita, Stan, Tammy, Vince, Wilma, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon and Zeta. During its post-analysis of the season, the NHC identified that a non-tropical area of low pressure in early October was a subtropical storm and possibly a tropical storm. However, they did not name it post fq

Additionally, a subtropical storm that formed in early October was not recognized as such at the time and so did not receive a name.

After the season had ended, the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee retired five names: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan and Wilma and replaced them with Don, Katia, Rina, Sean and Whitney for the 2011 season.[124] This surpassed the previous record for the number of hurricane names retired after a single season, four (held by the 1955, 1995 and the 2004 seasons.[125]During the conference, there was considerable discussion on the usage of the Greek Alphabet and if they could be retired if a significant storm had been designated with one.[124] The committee decided that the usage of the Greek Alphabet had a major important political, economic and social impact globally, which might not have happened if a secondary or circular list of names had been used.[124] As a result, the committee decided that the Greek Alphabet would be used again if the names were used up, but that it was not practical to retire a Greek letter.[124]

Season effects

A table of the storms that formed during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season is given below: it includes storm name, duration, peak strength, areas affected, damage, and death total. Damage and deaths include amounts while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low. The death toll includes all indirect deaths, such as traffic accidents or electrocutions. Damage figures are in 2005 USD.

2005 North Atlantic tropical cyclone season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


Arlene June 8–13 Tropical storm 70 (110) 989 Cayman Islands, Cuba, Southeast United States $11.8 million 1 [52]
Bret June 28–30 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1002 Central Mexico $9.2 million 2 [26]
Cindy July 3–7 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 991 Yucatan Peninsula, Southeastern US, East Coast of the United States $320 million 3 [58][59]
Dennis July 4–13 Category 4 hurricane 150 (240) 930 Windward Islands, Greater Antilles, Southeastern US, Great Lakes Region $4.026 billion 88 [60][33][17][32]
Emily July 11–21 Category 5 hurricane 160 (260) 929 Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, South America, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, Texas $458.7 million 17 [34][62][25][63][26]
Franklin July 21–29 Tropical storm 70 (110) 997 Bahamas, Bermuda, Newfoundland None None
Gert July 23–25 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1005 Central Mexico $6 million 1 [68][69]
Harvey August 2–8 Tropical storm 65 (100) 994 Bermuda None None
Irene August 4–18 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 970 East Coast of the US None 1 [73]
Ten August 13–14 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1008 None None None
Jose August 22–23 Tropical storm 60 (95) 998 Central Mexico $45 million 16 [26][76]
Katrina August 23–30 Category 5 hurricane 175 (280) 902 Bahamas, South Florida, Cuba, Southeastern US, Eastern US $125 billion 1,836 [79][18]
Lee August 28 – September 2 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1006 None None None
Maria September 1–10 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 962 Iceland, Scotland $3.1 million 3 [47][48]
Nate September 5–10 Category 1 hurricane 90 (150) 979 Bermuda, Azores None 1 [88]
Ophelia September 6–17 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 976 Bahamas, Florida, The Carolinas, East Coast of the US, Atlantic Canada, Europe $70 million 3 [21][89]
Philippe September 17–23 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 985 Bermuda Minimal None
Rita September 18–26 Category 5 hurricane 180 (285) 895 Hispaniola, Bahamas, Cuba, Florida, Gulf Coast of the United States, Midwestern United States $18.5 billion 120 [23][94]
Nineteen September 30 – October 2 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1006 None None None
Stan October 1–5 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 977 Central America, Mexico $2.708 billion[nb 2] 1,669 [28][26][27][29][104][103][106][105][107]
Unnamed October 4–5 Subtropical storm 50 (85) 997 Azores None None
Tammy October 5–6 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1001 Bahamas, Southeastern US Minor 10 [109][110]
Twenty-two October 8–10 Subtropical depression 35 (55) 1008 Bermuda, New England Minimal [nb 3]
Vince October 8–11 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 988 Portugal, Spain Minimal None
Wilma October 15–26 Category 5 hurricane 185 (295) 882 Bahamas, Jamaica, Central America, Yucatan Peninsula, Cuba, South Florida, Bahamas, Atlantic Canada $20.2 billion 48 [31][26][32][24][23]
Alpha October 22–24 Tropical storm 50 (85) 998 Hispaniola, Bahamas Unknown 26 [36]
Beta October 26–31 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 962 Central America, Colombia $15.5 million 9 [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]
Gamma November 14–21 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1002 Lesser Antilles, Central America $18 million 39 [45][46]
Delta November 22–28 Tropical storm 70 (110) 980 Canary Islands, North Africa $364 million 19 [51][118]
Epsilon November 29 – December 8 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 981 None None None
Zeta December 30 – January 6 Tropical storm 65 (100) 994 None None None
Season Aggregates
31 systems June 8, 2005 – January 6, 2006   185 (295) 882 $171.755 billion 3,912  

See also

Notes

  1. ^ All damage totals are in 2005 values of their respective currencies.
  2. ^ The damage total in El Salvador included impacts from a simultaneous volcano eruption.[103]
  3. ^ The remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two contributed to flooding over the northeastern United States that killed 10 people.[110]

References

  1. ^ "Background Information: The North Atlantic hurricane season". United States Climate Prediction Center. May 16, 2005. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Gray, William M; Klotzbach, Philip J; Thorson, William (December 3, 2004). Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and US Landfall Strike Probability for 2005 (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Saunders, Mark; Lea, Adam (July 7, 2005). July Forecast Update for Atlantic Hurricane Activity in 2005 (PDF) (Report). Tropical Storm Risk. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Gray, William M; Klotzbach, Philip J; Thorson, William (April 1, 2005). Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and US Landfall Strike Probability for 2005 (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Archived from the original on February 10, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  5. ^ a b Bell, Gerald D; Blake, Eric S; Landsea, Christopher W; Mo, Kingtse C; Pasch, Richard J; Chelliah, Muthuvel; Goldenberg, Stanley B (May 16, 2005). "NOAA: 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Outlook" (Press release). United States Climate Prediction Center. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Gray, William M; Klotzbach, Philip J; Thorson, William (April 1, 2005). Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and US Landfall Strike Probability for 2005 (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Archived from the original on February 10, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Saunders, Mark; Lea, Adam (August 5, 2005). August Forecast Update for Atlantic Hurricane Activity in 2005 (PDF) (Report). Tropical Storm Risk. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  8. ^ a b Bell, Gerald D; Blake, Eric S; Landsea, Christopher W; Mo, Kingtse C; Pasch, Richard J; Chelliah, Muthuvel; Goldenberg, Stanley B (August 2, 2005). "NOAA: August 2005 Update to Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook" (Press release). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d Gray, William M; Klotzbach, Philip J; Thorson, William (August 5, 2005). Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and US Landfall Strike Probability for 2005 (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
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Further reading

  • Benjamin P. Horton; Veronica Rossi; Andrea D. Hawkes (2009). "The sedimentary record of the 2005 hurricane season from the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines". Quaternary International. 195 (1–2): 15–30. Bibcode:2009QuInt.195...15H. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.03.004.

External links